1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere
1.1By 2030, eradicate extreme poverty for all people everywhere, currently measured as people living on less than $1.25 a day.
1.1.1Proportion of the population living below the international poverty line by sex, age, employment status and geographic location (urban/rural).
1.2By 2030, reduce at least by half the proportion of men, women and children of all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definitions.
1.2.1Proportion of population living below the national poverty line, by sex and age.
1.2.2Proportion of men, women and children of all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definitions.
1.3Implement nationally appropriate social protection systems and measures for all, including floors, and by 2030 achieve substantial coverage of the poor and the vulnerable.
1.3.1Proportion of population covered by social protection floors/systems, by sex, distinguishing children, unemployed persons, older persons, persons with disabilities, pregnant women, newborns, work-injury victims and the poor and the vulnerable.
1.4By 2030, ensure that all men and women, in particular the poor and the vulnerable, have equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to basic services, ownership and control over land and other forms of property, inheritance, natural resources, appropriate new technology and financial services, including microfinance.
1.4.1Proportion of population living in households with access to basic services.
1.4.2Proportion of total adult population with secure tenure rights to land, (a) with legally recognized documentation, and (b) who perceive their rights to land as secure, by sex and type of tenure.
1.5By 2030, build the resilience of the poor and those in vulnerable situations and reduce their exposure and vulnerability to climate-related extreme events and other economic, social and environmental shocks and disasters.
1.5.1Number of deaths, missing persons and directly affected persons attributed to disasters per 100,000 population.
1.5.2Direct economic loss attributed to disasters in relation to global gross domestic product (GDP).
1.5.3Number of countries that adopt and implement national disaster risk reduction strategies in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030.
1.5.4Proportion of local governments that adopt and implement local disaster risk reduction strategies in line with national disaster risk reduction strategies.
1.aEnsure significant mobilization of resources from a variety of sources, including through enhanced development cooperation, in order to provide adequate and predictable means for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, to implement programmes and policies to end poverty in all its dimensions.
1.a.1Total official development assistance grants from all donors that focus on poverty reduction as a share of the recipient country’s gross national income.
1.a.2Proportion of total government spending on essential services (education, health and social protection).
1.bCreate sound policy frameworks at the national, regional and international levels, based on pro-poor and gender-sensitive development strategies, to support accelerated investment in poverty eradication actions.
1.b.1Pro-poor public social spending.
2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture
2.1By 2030, end hunger and ensure access by all people, in particular the poor and people in vulnerable situations, including infants, to safe, nutritious and sufficient food all year round.
2.1.1Prevalence of undernourishment.
2.1.2Prevalence of moderate or severe food insecurity in the population, based on the Food Insecurity Experience Scale (FIES).
2.2By 2030, end all forms of malnutrition, including achieving, by 2025, the internationally agreed targets on stunting and wasting in children under 5 years of age, and address the nutritional needs of adolescent girls, pregnant and lactating women and older persons.
2.2.1Prevalence of stunting (height for age <-2 standard deviation from the median of the World Health Organization (WHO) Child Growth Standards) among children under 5 years of age.
2.2.2Prevalence of malnutrition (weight for height >+2 or <-2 standard deviation from the median of the WHO Child Growth Standards) among children under 5 years of age, by type (wasting and overweight).
2.2.3Prevalence of anaemia in women aged 15 to 49 years, by pregnancy status (percentage).
2.3By 2030, double the agricultural productivity and incomes of small-scale food producers, in particular women, indigenous peoples, family farmers, pastoralists and fishers, including through secure and equal access to land, other productive resources and inputs, knowledge, financial services, markets and opportunities for value addition and non-farm employment.
2.3.1Volume of production per labour unit by classes of farming/pastoral/forestry enterprise size.
2.3.2Average income of small-scale food producers, by sex and indigenous status.
2.4By 2030, ensure sustainable food production systems and implement resilient agricultural practices that increase productivity and production, that help maintain ecosystems, that strengthen capacity for adaptation to climate change, extreme weather, drought, flooding and other disasters and that progressively improve land and soil quality.
2.4.1Proportion of agricultural area under productive and sustainable agriculture.
2.5By 2020, maintain the genetic diversity of seeds, cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals and their related wild species, including through soundly managed and diversified seed and plant banks at the national, regional and international levels, and promote access to and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge, as internationally agreed.
2.5.1Number of plant and animal genetic resources for food and agriculture secured in either medium- or long-term conservation facilities.
2.5.2Proportion of local breeds classified as being at risk of extinction.
2.aIncrease investment, including through enhanced international cooperation, in rural infrastructure, agricultural research and extension services, technology development and plant and livestock gene banks in order to enhance agricultural productive capacity in developing countries, in particular least developed countries.
2.a.1The agriculture orientation index for government expenditures.
2.a.2Total official flows (official development assistance plus other official flows) to the agriculture sector.
2.bCorrect and prevent trade restrictions and distortions in world agricultural markets, including through the parallel elimination of all forms of agricultural export subsidies and all export measures with equivalent effect, in accordance with the mandate of the Doha Development Round.
2.b.1Agricultural export subsidies.
2.cAdopt measures to ensure the proper functioning of food commodity markets and their derivatives and facilitate timely access to market information, including on food reserves, in order to help limit extreme food price volatility.
2.c.1Indicator of food price anomalies.
3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages
3.1By 2030, reduce the global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100,000 live births.
3.1.1Maternal mortality ratio.
3.1.2Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel.
3.2By 2030, end preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age, with all countries aiming to reduce neonatal mortality to at least as low as 12 per 1,000 live births and under‑5 mortality to at least as low as 25 per 1,000 live births.
3.2.1Under‑5 mortality rate.
3.2.2Neonatal mortality rate.
3.3By 2030, end the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and neglected tropical diseases and combat hepatitis, water-borne diseases and other communicable diseases.
3.3.1Number of new HIV infections per 1,000 uninfected population, by sex, age and key populations.
3.3.2Tuberculosis incidence per 100,000 population.
3.3.3Malaria incidence per 1,000 population.
3.3.4Hepatitis B incidence per 100,000 population.
3.3.5Number of people requiring interventions against neglected tropical diseases.
3.4By 2030, reduce by one third premature mortality from non-communicable diseases through prevention and treatment and promote mental health and well-being.
3.4.1Mortality rate attributed to cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes or chronic respiratory disease.
3.4.2Suicide mortality rate.
3.5Strengthen the prevention and treatment of substance abuse, including narcotic drug abuse and harmful use of alcohol.
3.5.1Coverage of treatment interventions (pharmacological, psychosocial and rehabilitation and aftercare services) for substance use disorders.
3.5.2Alcohol per capita consumption (aged 15 years and older) within a calendar year in litres of pure alcohol.
3.6By 2020, halve the number of global deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents.
3.6.1Death rate due to road traffic injuries.
3.7By 2030, ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health-care services, including for family planning, information and education, and the integration of reproductive health into national strategies and programmes.
3.7.1Proportion of women of reproductive age (aged 15–49 years) who have their need for family planning satisfied with modern methods.
3.7.2Adolescent birth rate (aged 10–14 years; aged 15–19 years) per 1,000 women in that age group.
3.8Achieve universal health coverage, including financial risk protection, access to quality essential health-care services and access to safe, effective, quality and affordable essential medicines and vaccines for all.
3.8.1Coverage of essential health services.
3.8.2Proportion of population with large household expenditures on health as a share of total household expenditure or income.
3.9By 2030, substantially reduce the number of deaths and illnesses from hazardous chemicals and air, water and soil pollution and contamination.
3.9.1Mortality rate attributed to household and ambient air pollution.
3.9.2Mortality rate attributed to unsafe water, unsafe sanitation and lack of hygiene (exposure to unsafe Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for All (WASH) services).
3.9.3Mortality rate attributed to unintentional poisoning.
3.aStrengthen the implementation of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in all countries, as appropriate.
3.a.1Age-standardized prevalence of current tobacco use among persons aged 15 years and older.
3.bSupport the research and development of vaccines and medicines for the communicable and non‑communicable diseases that primarily affect developing countries, provide access to affordable essential medicines and vaccines, in accordance with the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health, which affirms the right of developing countries to use to the full the provisions in the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights regarding flexibilities to protect public health, and, in particular, provide access to medicines for all.
3.b.1Proportion of the target population covered by all vaccines included in their national programme.
3.b.2Total net official development assistance to medical research and basic health sectors.
3.b.3Proportion of health facilities that have a core set of relevant essential medicines available and affordable on a sustainable basis.
3.cSubstantially increase health financing and the recruitment, development, training and retention of the health workforce in developing countries, especially in least developed countries and small island developing States.
3.c.1Health worker density and distribution.
3.dStrengthen the capacity of all countries, in particular developing countries, for early warning, risk reduction and management of national and global health risks.
3.d.1International Health Regulations (IHR) capacity and health emergency preparedness.
3.d.2Percentage of bloodstream infections due to selected antimicrobial-resistant organismsi.
4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all
4.1By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys complete free, equitable and quality primary and secondary education leading to relevant and effective learning outcomes.
4.1.1Proportion of children and young people (a) in grades 2/3; (b) at the end of primary; and (c) at the end of lower secondary achieving at least a minimum proficiency level in (i) reading and (ii) mathematics, by sex.
4.1.2Completion rate (primary education, lower secondary education, upper secondary education).
4.2By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys have access to quality early childhood development, care and pre‑primary education so that they are ready for primary education.
4.2.1Proportion of children aged 24-59 months who are developmentally on track in health, learning and psychosocial well-being, by sexi.
4.2.2Participation rate in organized learning (one year before the official primary entry age), by sex.
4.3By 2030, ensure equal access for all women and men to affordable and quality technical, vocational and tertiary education, including university.
4.3.1Participation rate of youth and adults in formal and non-formal education and training in the previous 12 months, by sex.
4.4By 2030, substantially increase the number of youth and adults who have relevant skills, including technical and vocational skills, for employment, decent jobs and entrepreneurship.
4.4.1Proportion of youth and adults with information and communications technology (ICT) skills, by type of skill.
4.5By 2030, eliminate gender disparities in education and ensure equal access to all levels of education and vocational training for the vulnerable, including persons with disabilities, indigenous peoples and children in vulnerable situations.
4.5.1Parity indices (female/male, rural/urban, bottom/top wealth quintile and others such as disability status, indigenous peoples and conflict-affected, as data become available) for all education indicators on this list that can be disaggregated.
4.6By 2030, ensure that all youth and a substantial proportion of adults, both men and women, achieve literacy and numeracy.
4.6.1Proportion of population in a given age group achieving at least a fixed level of proficiency in functional (a) literacy and (b) numeracy skills, by sex.
4.7By 2030, ensure that all learners acquire the knowledge and skills needed to promote sustainable development, including, among others, through education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development.
4.7.1Extent to which (i) global citizenship education and (ii) education for sustainable development are mainstreamed in (a) national education policies; (b) curricula; (c) teacher education; and (d) student assessment.
4.aBuild and upgrade education facilities that are child, disability and gender sensitive and provide safe, non-violent, inclusive and effective learning environments for all.
4.a.1Proportion of schools offering basic services, by type of service.
4.bBy 2020, substantially expand globally the number of scholarships available to developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States and African countries, for enrolment in higher education, including vocational training and information and communications technology, technical, engineering and scientific programmes, in developed countries and other developing countries.
4.b.1Volume of official development assistance flows for scholarships by sector and type of study.
4.cBy 2030, substantially increase the supply of qualified teachers, including through international cooperation for teacher training in developing countries, especially least developed countries and small island developing States.
4.c.1Proportion of teachers with the minimum required qualifications, by education leveli.
5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
5.1End all forms of discrimination against all women and girls everywhere.
5.1.1Whether or not legal frameworks are in place to promote, enforce and monitor equality and non‑discrimination on the basis of sex.
5.2Eliminate all forms of violence against all women and girls in the public and private spheres, including trafficking and sexual and other types of exploitation.
5.2.1Proportion of ever-partnered women and girls aged 15 years and older subjected to physical, sexual or psychological violence by a current or former intimate partner in the previous 12 months, by form of violence and by age.
5.2.2Proportion of women and girls aged 15 years and older subjected to sexual violence by persons other than an intimate partner in the previous 12 months, by age and place of occurrence.
5.3Eliminate all harmful practices, such as child, early and forced marriage and female genital mutilation.
5.3.1Proportion of women aged 20–24 years who were married or in a union before age 15 and before age 18.
5.3.2Proportion of girls and women aged 15–49 years who have undergone female genital mutilation/cutting, by age.
5.4Recognize and value unpaid care and domestic work through the provision of public services, infrastructure and social protection policies and the promotion of shared responsibility within the household and the family as nationally appropriate.
5.4.1Proportion of time spent on unpaid domestic and care work, by sex, age and location.
5.5Ensure women’s full and effective participation and equal opportunities for leadership at all levels of decision-making in political, economic and public life.
5.5.1Proportion of seats held by women in (a) national parliaments and (b) local governments.
5.5.2Proportion of women in managerial positions.
5.6Ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights as agreed in accordance with the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development and the Beijing Platform for Action and the outcome documents of their review conferences.
5.6.1Proportion of women aged 15–49 years who make their own informed decisions regarding sexual relations, contraceptive use and reproductive health care.
5.6.2Number of countries with laws and regulations that guarantee full and equal access to women and men aged 15 years and older to sexual and reproductive health care, information and education.
5.aUndertake reforms to give women equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to ownership and control over land and other forms of property, financial services, inheritance and natural resources, in accordance with national laws.
5.a.1(a) Proportion of total agricultural population with ownership or secure rights over agricultural land, by sex; and (b) share of women among owners or rights-bearers of agricultural land, by type of tenure.
5.a.2Proportion of countries where the legal framework (including customary law) guarantees women’s equal rights to land ownership and/or control.
5.bEnhance the use of enabling technology, in particular information and communications technology, to promote the empowerment of women.
5.b.1Proportion of individuals who own a mobile telephone, by sex.
5.cAdopt and strengthen sound policies and enforceable legislation for the promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of all women and girls at all levels.
5.c.1Proportion of countries with systems to track and make public allocations for gender equality and women’s empowerment.
6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all
6.1By 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all.
6.1.1Proportion of population using safely managed drinking water services.
6.2By 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations.
6.2.1Proportion of population using (a) safely managed sanitation services and (b) a hand-washing facility with soap and water.
6.3By 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally.
6.3.1Proportion of domestic and industrial wastewater flows safely treated.
6.3.2Proportion of bodies of water with good ambient water quality.
6.4By 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity.
6.4.1Change in water-use efficiency over time.
6.4.2Level of water stress: freshwater withdrawal as a proportion of available freshwater resources.
6.5By 2030, implement integrated water resources management at all levels, including through transboundary cooperation as appropriate.
6.5.1Degree of integrated water resources management.
6.5.2Proportion of transboundary basin area with an operational arrangement for water cooperation.
6.6By 2020, protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes.
6.6.1Change in the extent of water-related ecosystems over time.
6.aBy 2030, expand international cooperation and capacity-building support to developing countries in water- and sanitation-related activities and programmes, including water harvesting, desalination, water efficiency, wastewater treatment, recycling and reuse technologies.
6.a.1Amount of water- and sanitation-related official development assistance that is part of a government-coordinated spending plan.
6.bSupport and strengthen the participation of local communities in improving water and sanitation management.
6.b.1Proportion of local administrative units with established and operational policies and procedures for participation of local communities in water and sanitation management.
7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all
7.1By 2030, ensure universal access to affordable, reliable and modern energy services.
7.1.1Proportion of population with access to electricity.
7.1.2Proportion of population with primary reliance on clean fuels and technology.
7.2By 2030, increase substantially the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix.
7.2.1Renewable energy share in the total final energy consumption.
7.3By 2030, double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency.
7.3.1Energy intensity measured in terms of primary energy and GDP.
7.aBy 2030, enhance international cooperation to facilitate access to clean energy research and technology, including renewable energy, energy efficiency and advanced and cleaner fossil-fuel technology, and promote investment in energy infrastructure and clean energy technology.
7.a.1International financial flows to developing countries in support of clean energy research and development and renewable energy production, including in hybrid systems.
7.bBy 2030, expand infrastructure and upgrade technology for supplying modern and sustainable energy services for all in developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States and landlocked developing countries, in accordance with their respective programmes of support.
7.b.1Installed renewable energy-generating capacity in developing countries (in watts per capita).
8. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all
8.1Sustain per capita economic growth in accordance with national circumstances and, in particular, at least 7 per cent gross domestic product growth per annum in the least developed countries.
8.1.1Annual growth rate of real GDP per capita.
8.2Achieve higher levels of economic productivity through diversification, technological upgrading and innovation, including through a focus on high-value added and labour-intensive sectors.
8.2.1Annual growth rate of real GDP per employed person.
8.3Promote development-oriented policies that support productive activities, decent job creation, entrepreneurship, creativity and innovation, and encourage the formalization and growth of micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises, including through access to financial services.
8.3.1Proportion of informal employment in total employment, by sector and sex.
8.4Improve progressively, through 2030, global resource efficiency in consumption and production and endeavour to decouple economic growth from environmental degradation, in accordance with the 10‑Year Framework of Programmes on Sustainable Consumption and Production, with developed countries taking the lead.
8.4.1Material footprint, material footprint per capita, and material footprint per GDP.
8.4.2Domestic material consumption, domestic material consumption per capita, and domestic material consumption per GDP.
8.5By 2030, achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all women and men, including for young people and persons with disabilities, and equal pay for work of equal value.
8.5.1Average hourly earnings of employees, by sex, age, occupation and persons with disabilities.
8.5.2Unemployment rate, by sex, age and persons with disabilities.
8.6By 2020, substantially reduce the proportion of youth not in employment, education or training.
8.6.1Proportion of youth (aged 15–24 years) not in education, employment or training.
8.7Take immediate and effective measures to eradicate forced labour, end modern slavery and human trafficking and secure the prohibition and elimination of the worst forms of child labour, including recruitment and use of child soldiers, and by 2025 end child labour in all its forms.
8.7.1Proportion and number of children aged 5–17 years engaged in child labour, by sex and age.
8.8Protect labour rights and promote safe and secure working environments for all workers, including migrant workers, in particular women migrants, and those in precarious employment.
8.8.1Fatal and non-fatal occupational injuries per 100,000 workers, by sex and migrant status.
8.8.2Level of national compliance with labour rights (freedom of association and collective bargaining) based on International Labour Organization (ILO) textual sources and national legislation, by sex and migrant status.
8.9By 2030, devise and implement policies to promote sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products.
8.9.1Tourism direct GDP as a proportion of total GDP and in growth rate.
8.10Strengthen the capacity of domestic financial institutions to encourage and expand access to banking, insurance and financial services for all.
8.10.1(a) Number of commercial bank branches per 100,000 adults and (b) number of automated teller machines (ATMs) per 100,000 adults.
8.10.2Proportion of adults (15 years and older) with an account at a bank or other financial institution or with a mobile-money-service provider.
8.aIncrease Aid for Trade support for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, including through the Enhanced Integrated Framework for Trade-related Technical Assistance to Least Developed Countries.
8.a.1Aid for Trade commitments and disbursements.
8.bBy 2020, develop and operationalize a global strategy for youth employment and implement the Global Jobs Pact of the International Labour Organization.
8.b.1Existence of a developed and operationalized national strategy for youth employment, as a distinct strategy or as part of a national employment strategy.
9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation
9.1Develop quality, reliable, sustainable and resilient infrastructure, including regional and transborder infrastructure, to support economic development and human well-being, with a focus on affordable and equitable access for all.
9.1.1Proportion of the rural population who live within 2 km of an all-season road.
9.1.2Passenger and freight volumes, by mode of transport.
9.2Promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and, by 2030, significantly raise industry’s share of employment and gross domestic product, in line with national circumstances, and double its share in least developed countries.
9.2.1Manufacturing value added as a proportion of GDP and per capita.
9.2.2Manufacturing employment as a proportion of total employment.
9.3Increase the access of small-scale industrial and other enterprises, in particular in developing countries, to financial services, including affordable credit, and their integration into value chains and markets.
9.3.1Proportion of small-scale industries in total industry value added.
9.3.2Proportion of small-scale industries with a loan or line of credit.
9.4By 2030, upgrade infrastructure and retrofit industries to make them sustainable, with increased resource-use efficiency and greater adoption of clean and environmentally sound technologies and industrial processes, with all countries taking action in accordance with their respective capabilities.
9.4.1CO2 emission per unit of value added.
9.5Enhance scientific research, upgrade the technological capabilities of industrial sectors in all countries, in particular developing countries, including, by 2030, encouraging innovation and substantially increasing the number of research and development workers per 1 million people and public and private research and development spending.
9.5.1Research and development expenditure as a proportion of GDP.
9.5.2Researchers (in full-time equivalent) per million inhabitants.
9.aFacilitate sustainable and resilient infrastructure development in developing countries through enhanced financial, technological and technical support to African countries, least developed countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing States.
9.a.1Total official international support (official development assistance plus other official flows) to infrastructure.
9.bSupport domestic technology development, research and innovation in developing countries, including by ensuring a conducive policy environment for, inter alia, industrial diversification and value addition to commodities.
9.b.1Proportion of medium and high-tech industry value added in total value added.
9.cSignificantly increase access to information and communications technology and strive to provide universal and affordable access to the Internet in least developed countries by 2020.
9.c.1Proportion of population covered by a mobile network, by technology.
10. Reduce inequality within and among countries
10.1By 2030, progressively achieve and sustain income growth of the bottom 40 per cent of the population at a rate higher than the national average.
10.1.1Growth rates of household expenditure or income per capita among the bottom 40 per cent of the population and the total population.
10.2By 2030, empower and promote the social, economic and political inclusion of all, irrespective of age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or other status.
10.2.1Proportion of people living below 50 per cent of median income, by sex, age and persons with disabilities.
10.3Ensure equal opportunity and reduce inequalities of outcome, including by eliminating discriminatory laws, policies and practices and promoting appropriate legislation, policies and action in this regard.
10.3.1Proportion of population reporting having personally felt discriminated against or harassed in the previous 12 months on the basis of a ground of discrimination prohibited under international human rights law.
10.4Adopt policies, especially fiscal, wage and social protection policies, and progressively achieve greater equality.
10.4.1Labour share of GDP.
10.4.2Redistributive impact of fiscal policy4.
10.5Improve the regulation and monitoring of global financial markets and institutions and strengthen the implementation of such regulations.
10.5.1Financial Soundness Indicators.
10.6Ensure enhanced representation and voice for developing countries in decision-making in global international economic and financial institutions in order to deliver more effective, credible, accountable and legitimate institutions.
10.6.1Proportion of members and voting rights of developing countries in international organizations.
10.7Facilitate orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration and mobility of people, including through the implementation of planned and well-managed migration policies.
10.7.1Recruitment cost borne by employee as a proportion of monthly income earned in country of destination.
10.7.2Number of countries with migration policies that facilitate orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration and mobility of people.
10.7.3Number of people who died or disappeared in the process of migration towards an international destinationi.
10.7.4Proportion of the population who are refugees, by country of origin.
10.aImplement the principle of special and differential treatment for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, in accordance with World Trade Organization agreements.
10.a.1Proportion of tariff lines applied to imports from least developed countries and developing countries with zero-tariff.
10.bEncourage official development assistance and financial flows, including foreign direct investment, to States where the need is greatest, in particular least developed countries, African countries, small island developing States and landlocked developing countries, in accordance with their national plans and programmes.
10.b.1Total resource flows for development, by recipient and donor countries and type of flow (e.g. official development assistance, foreign direct investment and other flows).
10.cBy 2030, reduce to less than 3 per cent the transaction costs of migrant remittances and eliminate remittance corridors with costs higher than 5 per cent.
10.c.1Remittance costs as a proportion of the amount remitted.
11. Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable
11.1By 2030, ensure access for all to adequate, safe and affordable housing and basic services and upgrade slums.
11.1.1Proportion of urban population living in slums, informal settlements or inadequate housing.
11.2By 2030, provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all, improving road safety, notably by expanding public transport, with special attention to the needs of those in vulnerable situations, women, children, persons with disabilities and older persons.
11.2.1Proportion of population that has convenient access to public transport, by sex, age and persons with disabilities.
11.3By 2030, enhance inclusive and sustainable urbanization and capacity for participatory, integrated and sustainable human settlement planning and management in all countries.
11.3.1Ratio of land consumption rate to population growth rate.
11.3.2Proportion of cities with a direct participation structure of civil society in urban planning and management that operate regularly and democratically.
11.4Strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard the world’s cultural and natural heritage.
11.4.1Total per capita expenditure on the preservation, protection and conservation of all cultural and natural heritage, by source of funding (public, private), type of heritage (cultural, natural) and level of government (national, regional, and local/municipal).
11.5By 2030, significantly reduce the number of deaths and the number of people affected and substantially decrease the direct economic losses relative to global gross domestic product caused by disasters, including water-related disasters, with a focus on protecting the poor and people in vulnerable situations.
11.5.1Number of deaths, missing persons and directly affected persons attributed to disasters per 100,000 population.
11.5.2Direct economic loss in relation to global GDP, damage to critical infrastructure and number of disruptions to basic services, attributed to disasters.
11.6By 2030, reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air quality and municipal and other waste management.
11.6.1Proportion of municipal solid waste collected and managed in controlled facilities out of total municipal waste generated, by cities.
11.6.2Annual mean levels of fine particulate matter (e.g. PM2.5 and PM10) in cities (population weighted).
11.7By 2030, provide universal access to safe, inclusive and accessible, green and public spaces, in particular for women and children, older persons and persons with disabilities.
11.7.1Average share of the built-up area of cities that is open space for public use for all, by sex, age and persons with disabilities.
11.7.2Proportion of persons victim of physical or sexual harassment, by sex, age, disability status and place of occurrence, in the previous 12 months.
11.aSupport positive economic, social and environmental links between urban, peri-urban and rural areas by strengthening national and regional development planning.
11.a.1Number of countries that have national urban policies or regional development plans that (a) respond to population dynamics; (b) ensure balanced territorial development; and (c) increase local fiscal space.
11.bBy 2020, substantially increase the number of cities and human settlements adopting and implementing integrated policies and plans towards inclusion, resource efficiency, mitigation and adaptation to climate change, resilience to disasters, and develop and implement, in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030, holistic disaster risk management at all levels.
11.b.1Number of countries that adopt and implement national disaster risk reduction strategies in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030.
11.b.2Proportion of local governments that adopt and implement local disaster risk reduction strategies in line with national disaster risk reduction strategies.
11.cSupport least developed countries, including through financial and technical assistance, in building sustainable and resilient buildings utilizing local materials.
12. Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns
12.1Implement the 10‑Year Framework of Programmes on Sustainable Consumption and Production Patterns, all countries taking action, with developed countries taking the lead, taking into account the development and capabilities of developing countries.
12.1.1Number of countries developing, adopting or implementing policy instruments aimed at supporting the shift to sustainable consumption and production.
12.2By 2030, achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources.
12.2.1Material footprint, material footprint per capita, and material footprint per GDP.
12.2.2Domestic material consumption, domestic material consumption per capita, and domestic material consumption per GDP.
12.3By 2030, halve per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer levels and reduce food losses along production and supply chains, including post-harvest losses.
12.3.1(a) Food loss index and (b) food waste index.
12.4By 2020, achieve the environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle, in accordance with agreed international frameworks, and significantly reduce their release to air, water and soil in order to minimize their adverse impacts on human health and the environment.
12.4.1Number of parties to international multilateral environmental agreements on hazardous waste, and other chemicals that meet their commitments and obligations in transmitting information as required by each relevant agreement.
12.4.2(a) Hazardous waste generated per capita; and (b) proportion of hazardous waste treated, by type of treatment.
12.5By 2030, substantially reduce waste generation through prevention, reduction, recycling and reuse.
12.5.1National recycling rate, tons of material recycled.
12.6Encourage companies, especially large and transnational companies, to adopt sustainable practices and to integrate sustainability information into their reporting cycle.
12.6.1Number of companies publishing sustainability reports.
12.7Promote public procurement practices that are sustainable, in accordance with national policies and priorities.
12.7.1Degree of sustainable public procurement policies and action plan implementation.
12.8By 2030, ensure that people everywhere have the relevant information and awareness for sustainable development and lifestyles in harmony with nature.
12.8.1Extent to which (i) global citizenship education and (ii) education for sustainable development are mainstreamed in (a) national education policies; (b) curricula; (c) teacher education; and (d) student assessment.
12.aSupport developing countries to strengthen their scientific and technological capacity to move towards more sustainable patterns of consumption and production.
12.a.1Installed renewable energy-generating capacity in developing countries (in watts per capita).
12.bDevelop and implement tools to monitor sustainable development impacts for sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products.
12.b.1Implementation of standard accounting tools to monitor the economic and environmental aspects of tourism sustainability.
12.cRationalize inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption by removing market distortions, in accordance with national circumstances, including by restructuring taxation and phasing out those harmful subsidies, where they exist, to reflect their environmental impacts, taking fully into account the specific needs and conditions of developing countries and minimizing the possible adverse impacts on their development in a manner that protects the poor and the affected communities.
12.c.1Amount of fossil-fuel subsidies per unit of GDP (production and consumption)i.
13. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts3
13.1Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related hazards and natural disasters in all countries.
13.1.1Number of deaths, missing persons and directly affected persons attributed to disasters per 100,000 population.
13.1.2Number of countries that adopt and implement national disaster risk reduction strategies in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030.
13.1.3Proportion of local governments that adopt and implement local disaster risk reduction strategies in line with national disaster risk reduction strategies.
13.2Integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies and planning.
13.2.1Number of countries with nationally determined contributions, long-term strategies, national adaptation plans, strategies as reported in adaptation communications and national communications.
13.2.2Total greenhouse gas emissions per year.
13.3Improve education, awareness-raising and human and institutional capacity on climate change mitigation, adaptation, impact reduction and early warning.
13.3.1Extent to which (i) global citizenship education and (ii) education for sustainable development are mainstreamed in (a) national education policies; (b) curricula; (c) teacher education; and (d) student assessment.
13.aImplement the commitment undertaken by developed-country parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to a goal of mobilizing jointly $100 billion annually by 2020 from all sources to address the needs of developing countries in the context of meaningful mitigation actions and transparency on implementation and fully operationalize the Green Climate Fund through its capitalization as soon as possible.
13.a.1Amounts provided and mobilized in United States dollars per year in relation to the continued existing collective mobilization goal of the $100 billion commitment through to 2025.
13.bPromote mechanisms for raising capacity for effective climate change-related planning and management in least developed countries and small island developing States, including focusing on women, youth and local and marginalized communities.
13.b.1Number of least developed countries and small island developing States with nationally determined contributions, long-term strategies, national adaptation plans, strategies as reported in adaptation communications and national communications.
14. Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development
14.1By 2025, prevent and significantly reduce marine pollution of all kinds, in particular from land-based activities, including marine debris and nutrient pollution.
14.1.1(a) Index of coastal eutrophication; and (b) plastic debris densityi.
14.2By 2020, sustainably manage and protect marine and coastal ecosystems to avoid significant adverse impacts, including by strengthening their resilience, and take action for their restoration in order to achieve healthy and productive oceans.
14.2.1Number of countries using ecosystem-based approaches to managing marine areas.
14.3Minimize and address the impacts of ocean acidification, including through enhanced scientific cooperation at all levels.
14.3.1Average marine acidity (pH) measured at agreed suite of representative sampling stations.
14.4By 2020, effectively regulate harvesting and end overfishing, illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and destructive fishing practices and implement science-based management plans, in order to restore fish stocks in the shortest time feasible, at least to levels that can produce maximum sustainable yield as determined by their biological characteristics.
14.4.1Proportion of fish stocks within biologically sustainable levels.
14.5By 2020, conserve at least 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, consistent with national and international law and based on the best available scientific information.
14.5.1Coverage of protected areas in relation to marine areas.
14.6By 2020, prohibit certain forms of fisheries subsidies which contribute to overcapacity and overfishing, eliminate subsidies that contribute to illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and refrain from introducing new such subsidies, recognizing that appropriate and effective special and differential treatment for developing and least developed countries should be an integral part of the World Trade Organization fisheries subsidies negotiation4.
14.6.1Degree of implementation of international instruments aiming to combat illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing.
14.7By 2030, increase the economic benefits to small island developing States and least developed countries from the sustainable use of marine resources, including through sustainable management of fisheries, aquaculture and tourism.
14.7.1Sustainable fisheries as a proportion of GDP in small island developing States, least developed countries and all countries.
14.aIncrease scientific knowledge, develop research capacity and transfer marine technology, taking into account the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Criteria and Guidelines on the Transfer of Marine Technology, in order to improve ocean health and to enhance the contribution of marine biodiversity to the development of developing countries, in particular small island developing States and least developed countries.
14.a.1Proportion of total research budget allocated to research in the field of marine technology.
14.bProvide access for small-scale artisanal fishers to marine resources and markets.
14.b.1Degree of application of a legal/regulatory/ policy/institutional framework which recognizes and protects access rights for small-scale fisheries.
14.cEnhance the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and their resources by implementing international law as reflected in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, which provides the legal framework for the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and their resources, as recalled in paragraph 158 of “The future we want”.
14.c.1Number of countries making progress in ratifying, accepting and implementing through legal, policy and institutional frameworks, ocean-related instruments that implement international law, as reflected in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, for the conservation and sustainable use of the oceans and their resources.
15. Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss
15.1By 2020, ensure the conservation, restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains and drylands, in line with obligations under international agreements.
15.1.1Forest area as a proportion of total land area.
15.1.2Proportion of important sites for terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity that are covered by protected areas, by ecosystem type.
15.2By 2020, promote the implementation of sustainable management of all types of forests, halt deforestation, restore degraded forests and substantially increase afforestation and reforestation globally.
15.2.1Progress towards sustainable forest management.
15.3By 2030, combat desertification, restore degraded land and soil, including land affected by desertification, drought and floods, and strive to achieve a land degradation-neutral world.
15.3.1Proportion of land that is degraded over total land area.
15.4By 2030, ensure the conservation of mountain ecosystems, including their biodiversity, in order to enhance their capacity to provide benefits that are essential for sustainable development.
15.4.1Coverage by protected areas of important sites for mountain biodiversity.
15.4.2Mountain Green Cover Index.
15.5Take urgent and significant action to reduce the degradation of natural habitats, halt the loss of biodiversity and, by 2020, protect and prevent the extinction of threatened species.
15.6Promote fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and promote appropriate access to such resources, as internationally agreed.
15.6.1Number of countries that have adopted legislative, administrative and policy frameworks to ensure fair and equitable sharing of benefits.
15.7Take urgent action to end poaching and trafficking of protected species of flora and fauna and address both demand and supply of illegal wildlife products.
15.7.1Proportion of traded wildlife that was poached or illicitly trafficked.
15.8By 2020, introduce measures to prevent the introduction and significantly reduce the impact of invasive alien species on land and water ecosystems and control or eradicate the priority species.
15.8.1Proportion of countries adopting relevant national legislation and adequately resourcing the prevention or control of invasive alien species.
15.9By 2020, integrate ecosystem and biodiversity values into national and local planning, development processes, poverty reduction strategies and accounts.
15.9.1(a) Number of countries that have established national targets in accordance with or similar to Aichi Biodiversity Target 2 of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011–2020 in their national biodiversity strategy and action plans and the progress reported towards these targets; and (b) integration of biodiversity into national accounting and reporting systems, defined as implementation of the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting.
15.aMobilize and significantly increase financial resources from all sources to conserve and sustainably use biodiversity and ecosystems.
15.a.1(a) Official development assistance on conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity; and (b) revenue generated and finance mobilized from biodiversity-relevant economic instruments.
15.bMobilize significant resources from all sources and at all levels to finance sustainable forest management and provide adequate incentives to developing countries to advance such management, including for conservation and reforestation.
15.b.1(a) Official development assistance on conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity; and (b) revenue generated and finance mobilized from biodiversity-relevant economic instruments.
15.cEnhance global support for efforts to combat poaching and trafficking of protected species, including by increasing the capacity of local communities to pursue sustainable livelihood opportunities.
15.c.1Proportion of traded wildlife that was poached or illicitly trafficked.
16. Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels
16.1Significantly reduce all forms of violence and related death rates everywhere.
16.1.1Number of victims of intentional homicide per 100,000 population, by sex and age.
16.1.2Conflict-related deaths per 100,000 population, by sex, age and cause.
16.1.3Proportion of population subjected to (a) physical violence, (b) psychological violence and (c) sexual violence in the previous 12 months.
16.1.4Proportion of population that feel safe walking alone around the area they live.
16.2End abuse, exploitation, trafficking and all forms of violence against and torture of children.
16.2.1Proportion of children aged 1–17 years who experienced any physical punishment and/or psychological aggression by caregivers in the past month.
16.2.2Number of victims of human trafficking per 100,000 population, by sex, age and form of exploitation.
16.2.3Proportion of young women and men aged 18–29 years who experienced sexual violence by age 18.
16.3Promote the rule of law at the national and international levels and ensure equal access to justice for all.
16.3.1Proportion of victims of violence in the previous 12 months who reported their victimization to competent authorities or other officially recognized conflict resolution mechanisms.
16.3.2Unsentenced detainees as a proportion of overall prison population.
16.3.3Proportion of the population who have experienced a dispute in the past two years and who accessed a formal or informal dispute resolution mechanism, by type of mechanism.
16.4By 2030, significantly reduce illicit financial and arms flows, strengthen the recovery and return of stolen assets and combat all forms of organized crime.
16.4.1Total value of inward and outward illicit financial flows (in current United States dollars).
16.4.2Proportion of seized, found or surrendered arms whose illicit origin or context has been traced or established by a competent authority in line with international instruments.
16.5Substantially reduce corruption and bribery in all their forms.
16.5.1Proportion of persons who had at least one contact with a public official and who paid a bribe to a public official, or were asked for a bribe by those public officials, during the previous 12 months.
16.5.2Proportion of businesses that had at least one contact with a public official and that paid a bribe to a public official, or were asked for a bribe by those public officials during the previous 12 months.
16.6Develop effective, accountable and transparent institutions at all levels.
16.6.1Primary government expenditures as a proportion of original approved budget, by sector (or by budget codes or similar).
16.6.2Proportion of population satisfied with their last experience of public services.
16.7Ensure responsive, inclusive, participatory and representative decision-making at all levels.
16.7.1Proportions of positions in national and local institutions, including (a) the legislatures; (b) the public service; and (c) the judiciary, compared to national distributions, by sex, age, persons with disabilities and population groups.
16.7.2Proportion of population who believe decision-making is inclusive and responsive, by sex, age, disability and population group.
16.8Broaden and strengthen the participation of developing countries in the institutions of global governance.
16.8.1Proportion of members and voting rights of developing countries in international organizations.
16.9By 2030, provide legal identity for all, including birth registration.
16.9.1Proportion of children under 5 years of age whose births have been registered with a civil authority, by age.
16.10Ensure public access to information and protect fundamental freedoms, in accordance with national legislation and international agreements.
16.10.1Number of verified cases of killing, kidnapping, enforced disappearance, arbitrary detention and torture of journalists, associated media personnel, trade unionists and human rights advocates in the previous 12 months.
16.10.2Number of countries that adopt and implement constitutional, statutory and/or policy guarantees for public access to information.
16.aStrengthen relevant national institutions, including through international cooperation, for building capacity at all levels, in particular in developing countries, to prevent violence and combat terrorism and crime.
16.a.1Existence of independent national human rights institutions in compliance with the Paris Principles.
16.bPromote and enforce non-discriminatory laws and policies for sustainable development.
16.b.1Proportion of population reporting having personally felt discriminated against or harassed in the previous 12 months on the basis of a ground of discrimination prohibited under international human rights law.
17. Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the Global Partnership for Sustainable Development
17.1Strengthen domestic resource mobilization, including through international support to developing countries, to improve domestic capacity for tax and other revenue collection.
17.1.1Total government revenue as a proportion of GDP, by source.
17.1.2Proportion of domestic budget funded by domestic taxes.
17.2Developed countries to implement fully their official development assistance commitments, including the commitment by many developed countries to achieve the target of 0.7 per cent of gross national income for official development assistance (ODA/GNI) to developing countries and 0.15 to 0.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to least developed countries; ODA providers are encouraged to consider setting a target to provide at least 0.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to least developed countries.
17.2.1Net official development assistance, total and to least developed countries, as a proportion of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Development Assistance Committee donors’ gross national income (GNI).
17.3Mobilize additional financial resources for developing countries from multiple sources.
17.3.1Foreign direct investment, official development assistance and South-South cooperation as a proportion of gross national income.
17.3.2Volume of remittances (in United States dollars) as a proportion of total GDP.
17.4Assist developing countries in attaining long-term debt sustainability through coordinated policies aimed at fostering debt financing, debt relief and debt restructuring, as appropriate, and address the external debt of highly indebted poor countries to reduce debt distress.
17.4.1Debt service as a proportion of exports of goods and services.
17.5Adopt and implement investment promotion regimes for least developed countries.
17.5.1Number of countries that adopt and implement investment promotion regimes for developing countries, including the least developed countries.
17.6Enhance North-South, South-South and triangular regional and international cooperation on and access to science, technology and innovation and enhance knowledge-sharing on mutually agreed terms, including through improved coordination among existing mechanisms, in particular at the United Nations level, and through a global technology facilitation mechanism.
17.6.1Fixed Internet broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants, by speed5.
17.7Promote the development, transfer, dissemination and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies to developing countries on favourable terms, including on concessional and preferential terms, as mutually agreed.
17.7.1Total amount of funding for developing countries to promote the development, transfer, dissemination and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies.
17.8Fully operationalize the technology bank and science, technology and innovation capacity-building mechanism for least developed countries by 2017 and enhance the use of enabling technology, in particular information and communications technology.
17.8.1Proportion of individuals using the Internet.
17.9Enhance international support for implementing effective and targeted capacity-building in developing countries to support national plans to implement all the Sustainable Development Goals, including through North-South, South-South and triangular cooperation.
17.9.1Dollar value of financial and technical assistance (including through North-South, South‑South and triangular cooperation) committed to developing countries.
17.10Promote a universal, rules-based, open, non‑discriminatory and equitable multilateral trading system under the World Trade Organization, including through the conclusion of negotiations under its Doha Development Agenda.
17.10.1Worldwide weighted tariff-average.
17.11Significantly increase the exports of developing countries, in particular with a view to doubling the least developed countries’ share of global exports by 2020.
17.11.1Developing countries’ and least developed countries’ share of global exports.
17.12Realize timely implementation of duty-free and quota-free market access on a lasting basis for all least developed countries, consistent with World Trade Organization decisions, including by ensuring that preferential rules of origin applicable to imports from least developed countries are transparent and simple, and contribute to facilitating market access.
17.12.1Weighted average tariffs faced by developing countries, least developed countries and small island developing States.
17.13Enhance global macroeconomic stability, including through policy coordination and policy coherence.
17.14Enhance policy coherence for sustainable development.
17.14.1Number of countries with mechanisms in place to enhance policy coherence of sustainable development.
17.15Respect each country’s policy space and leadership to establish and implement policies for poverty eradication and sustainable development.
17.15.1Extent of use of country-owned results frameworks and planning tools by providers of development cooperation.
17.16Enhance the Global Partnership for Sustainable Development, complemented by multi-stakeholder partnerships that mobilize and share knowledge, expertise, technology and financial resources, to support the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals in all countries, in particular developing countries.
17.16.1Number of countries reporting progress in multi-stakeholder development effectiveness monitoring frameworks that support the achievement of the sustainable development goals.
17.17Encourage and promote effective public, public-private and civil society partnerships, building on the experience and resourcing strategies of partnerships.
17.17.1Amount in United States dollars committed to public-private partnerships for infrastructure.
17.18By 2020, enhance capacity-building support to developing countries, including for least developed countries and small island developing States, to increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.
17.18.1Statistical capacity indicator for Sustainable Development Goal monitoring.
17.18.2Number of countries that have national statistical legislation that complies with the Fundamental Principles of Official Statistics.
17.18.3Number of countries with a national statistical plan that is fully funded and under implementation, by source of funding.
17.19By 2030, build on existing initiatives to develop measurements of progress on sustainable development that complement gross domestic product, and support statistical capacity-building in developing countries.
17.19.1Dollar value of all resources made available to strengthen statistical capacity in developing countries.
17.19.2Proportion of countries that (a) have conducted at least one population and housing census in the last 10 years; and (b) have achieved 100 per cent birth registration and 80 per cent death registration.