2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture
2.1By 2030, end hunger and ensure access by all people, in particular the poor and people in vulnerable situations, including infants, to safe, nutritious and sufficient food all year round.
2.1.1Prevalence of undernourishment.
2.1.2Prevalence of moderate or severe food insecurity in the population, based on the Food Insecurity Experience Scale (FIES).
2.2By 2030, end all forms of malnutrition, including achieving, by 2025, the internationally agreed targets on stunting and wasting in children under 5 years of age, and address the nutritional needs of adolescent girls, pregnant and lactating women and older persons.
2.2.1Prevalence of stunting (height for age <-2 standard deviation from the median of the World Health Organization (WHO) Child Growth Standards) among children under 5 years of age.
2.2.2Prevalence of malnutrition (weight for height >+2 or <-2 standard deviation from the median of the WHO Child Growth Standards) among children under 5 years of age, by type (wasting and overweight).
2.2.3Prevalence of anaemia in women aged 15 to 49 years, by pregnancy status (percentage).
2.3By 2030, double the agricultural productivity and incomes of small-scale food producers, in particular women, indigenous peoples, family farmers, pastoralists and fishers, including through secure and equal access to land, other productive resources and inputs, knowledge, financial services, markets and opportunities for value addition and non-farm employment.
2.3.1Volume of production per labour unit by classes of farming/pastoral/forestry enterprise size.
2.3.2Average income of small-scale food producers, by sex and indigenous status.
2.4By 2030, ensure sustainable food production systems and implement resilient agricultural practices that increase productivity and production, that help maintain ecosystems, that strengthen capacity for adaptation to climate change, extreme weather, drought, flooding and other disasters and that progressively improve land and soil quality.
2.4.1Proportion of agricultural area under productive and sustainable agriculture.
2.5By 2020, maintain the genetic diversity of seeds, cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals and their related wild species, including through soundly managed and diversified seed and plant banks at the national, regional and international levels, and promote access to and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge, as internationally agreed.
2.5.1Number of plant and animal genetic resources for food and agriculture secured in either medium- or long-term conservation facilities.
2.5.2Proportion of local breeds classified as being at risk of extinction.
2.aIncrease investment, including through enhanced international cooperation, in rural infrastructure, agricultural research and extension services, technology development and plant and livestock gene banks in order to enhance agricultural productive capacity in developing countries, in particular least developed countries.
2.a.1The agriculture orientation index for government expenditures.
2.a.2Total official flows (official development assistance plus other official flows) to the agriculture sector.
2.bCorrect and prevent trade restrictions and distortions in world agricultural markets, including through the parallel elimination of all forms of agricultural export subsidies and all export measures with equivalent effect, in accordance with the mandate of the Doha Development Round.
2.b.1Agricultural export subsidies.
2.cAdopt measures to ensure the proper functioning of food commodity markets and their derivatives and facilitate timely access to market information, including on food reserves, in order to help limit extreme food price volatility.
2.c.1Indicator of food price anomalies.