9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation
9.1Develop quality, reliable, sustainable and resilient infrastructure, including regional and transborder infrastructure, to support economic development and human well-being, with a focus on affordable and equitable access for all.
9.1.1Proportion of the rural population who live within 2 km of an all-season road.
9.1.2Passenger and freight volumes, by mode of transport.
9.2Promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and, by 2030, significantly raise industry’s share of employment and gross domestic product, in line with national circumstances, and double its share in least developed countries.
9.2.1Manufacturing value added as a proportion of GDP and per capita.
9.2.2Manufacturing employment as a proportion of total employment.
9.3Increase the access of small-scale industrial and other enterprises, in particular in developing countries, to financial services, including affordable credit, and their integration into value chains and markets.
9.3.1Proportion of small-scale industries in total industry value added.
9.3.2Proportion of small-scale industries with a loan or line of credit.
9.4By 2030, upgrade infrastructure and retrofit industries to make them sustainable, with increased resource-use efficiency and greater adoption of clean and environmentally sound technologies and industrial processes, with all countries taking action in accordance with their respective capabilities.
9.4.1CO2 emission per unit of value added.
9.5Enhance scientific research, upgrade the technological capabilities of industrial sectors in all countries, in particular developing countries, including, by 2030, encouraging innovation and substantially increasing the number of research and development workers per 1 million people and public and private research and development spending.
9.5.1Research and development expenditure as a proportion of GDP.
9.5.2Researchers (in full-time equivalent) per million inhabitants.
9.aFacilitate sustainable and resilient infrastructure development in developing countries through enhanced financial, technological and technical support to African countries, least developed countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing States.
9.a.1Total official international support (official development assistance plus other official flows) to infrastructure.
9.bSupport domestic technology development, research and innovation in developing countries, including by ensuring a conducive policy environment for, inter alia, industrial diversification and value addition to commodities.
9.b.1Proportion of medium and high-tech industry value added in total value added.
9.cSignificantly increase access to information and communications technology and strive to provide universal and affordable access to the Internet in least developed countries by 2020.
9.c.1Proportion of population covered by a mobile network, by technology.