12. Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns
12.1Implement the 10‑Year Framework of Programmes on Sustainable Consumption and Production Patterns, all countries taking action, with developed countries taking the lead, taking into account the development and capabilities of developing countries.
12.1.1Number of countries developing, adopting or implementing policy instruments aimed at supporting the shift to sustainable consumption and production.
12.2By 2030, achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources.
12.2.1Material footprint, material footprint per capita, and material footprint per GDP.
12.2.2Domestic material consumption, domestic material consumption per capita, and domestic material consumption per GDP.
12.3By 2030, halve per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer levels and reduce food losses along production and supply chains, including post-harvest losses.
12.3.1(a) Food loss index and (b) food waste index.
12.4By 2020, achieve the environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle, in accordance with agreed international frameworks, and significantly reduce their release to air, water and soil in order to minimize their adverse impacts on human health and the environment.
12.4.1Number of parties to international multilateral environmental agreements on hazardous waste, and other chemicals that meet their commitments and obligations in transmitting information as required by each relevant agreement.
12.4.2(a) Hazardous waste generated per capita; and (b) proportion of hazardous waste treated, by type of treatment.
12.5By 2030, substantially reduce waste generation through prevention, reduction, recycling and reuse.
12.5.1National recycling rate, tons of material recycled.
12.6Encourage companies, especially large and transnational companies, to adopt sustainable practices and to integrate sustainability information into their reporting cycle.
12.6.1Number of companies publishing sustainability reports.
12.7Promote public procurement practices that are sustainable, in accordance with national policies and priorities.
12.7.1Degree of sustainable public procurement policies and action plan implementation.
12.8By 2030, ensure that people everywhere have the relevant information and awareness for sustainable development and lifestyles in harmony with nature.
12.8.1Extent to which (i) global citizenship education and (ii) education for sustainable development are mainstreamed in (a) national education policies; (b) curricula; (c) teacher education; and (d) student assessment.
12.aSupport developing countries to strengthen their scientific and technological capacity to move towards more sustainable patterns of consumption and production.
12.a.1Installed renewable energy-generating capacity in developing countries (in watts per capita).
12.bDevelop and implement tools to monitor sustainable development impacts for sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products.
12.b.1Implementation of standard accounting tools to monitor the economic and environmental aspects of tourism sustainability.
12.cRationalize inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption by removing market distortions, in accordance with national circumstances, including by restructuring taxation and phasing out those harmful subsidies, where they exist, to reflect their environmental impacts, taking fully into account the specific needs and conditions of developing countries and minimizing the possible adverse impacts on their development in a manner that protects the poor and the affected communities.
12.c.1Amount of fossil-fuel subsidies per unit of GDP (production and consumption).